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Munich 1957 | | Munich 1957

Munich 1957

Published on 16 April 2011


SEPTEMBER 16th - 20th, 1957


This year, at the invitation of the German Association, the League will hold its annual Congress in Munich. This invitation when made at the London Congress by Dr. G. Karl, President of the German Association, was greeted with great applause, and all members of the League look forward to this visit to Munich and bring with them sincere good wishes for the long life and prosperity of the German Association.


This short report will give an account of the Committee's work since our last Congress, and will be the basis for our Agenda at Munich.



A copy of the year's Balance Sheet is given at the end of this report.

The financial position of the League is very good, due to profits made from our publications and economy in our expenses, especially the saving in printing costs and Congress expenses.

The appeal made last year for increased subscriptions, gifts of books to be sold by auction, in order to collect a capital sum for the League, met with only one response - the A.B.A.A. increased their annual subscription to $500. A generous and kind act appreciated by us all. Will all Presidents please consider this financial problem and give us their suggestions and ideas at Munich.

Future expenses to be met include the Munich Congress and the printing of the new Directory.



Confidential Lists for exchange among Associations are due in May and November. No complaints have been received concerning members of the League.

Presidents are once again asked to circulate these lists regularly among all members, and also to see that they are kept up to date.

A suggestion has been received from the Swiss Association concerning the minimum amount in default necessary before a name is placed upon a Confidential List : this will be discussed at Munich. The A.B.A.A. will also be asked if they can see their way to issue a List for safeguarding booksellers in other countries.



Our two editors, Mr. Christian M, Nebehay and Dr. A Frauendorfer, have worked hard and with enthusiasm on the New Directory. They have received full support from most nations, but some questionnaires have not yet been returned and are therefore causing an unfortunate delay in the publication of this very important work. The editors will give a full report to the Congress. 270 copies of the last Supplement are still available.



About 100 copies have been sold this year and over 800 are still available. 1200 copies in all have been sold. Will all Presidents please encourage members of their Associations to advertise the Directory in their catalogues. trade journals. and special advertisements. and so endeavour to sell the remaining copies of this important publication.



The New Rules passed by the General Assembly on September 13th 1956 were printed and issued free to all members. They were effective as from June 1st 1957.



Through Mr. M. Hertzberger approach has been made to a member of the International Federation of Library Associations as reported fully in the Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee in Hamburg - but so far no reply has been received.

Will all Presidents endeavour to obtain the views of Librarians upon this subject in their own countries before September, so that this suggestion can be discussed at Munich.

The proposal from the League is as follows:- "In view of the scarcity of rare and important books covering all subjects, is the International Federation of Library Associations in favour of public and university libraries selling their duplicate copies, in order that the many libraries now being formed in the world may benefit. and so help to increase intellectual progress and international understanding.

The International League of Antiquarian Booksellers would be willing to co-operate in selling the duplicates and thus to further the increase of intellectual progress and international understanding".



The Committee have chosen an attractive plaque for the use of members of the League. A sample will be on show at Munich and the Assembly will be asked to approve it. This plaque can be sent separately to a member in any country and so avoid custom or import duties.

A specimen form of agreement is attached to this Report for the use of Presidents. The plaque always remains the property of the League.



The proposals of Austria, Belgium and Great Britain will be seen at the end of this Report.

Proposals from France were received too late to be discussed by the Committee in Hamburg; they will, however, be mentioned at the first Committee Meeting in Munich.



In accordance with Rule 23 two members of the Committee retire and are eligible for- re-election

Dr E. Aeschlimann has resigned because of ill health.

Dr E. Hauswedell offers himself for re-election.

There is now a vacancy upon the Committee which must be filled at the Munich Congress. The French Association with its large membership has for two years been without a voting member on the Committee and so have been asked by the Committee to submit the name of a candidate for this vacancy.

Names of all candidates will be published at the opening of the Munich Congress.

When the vacancy on the Committee has been filled the General Assembly will be asked to elect a Treasurer.

This, the Committee's Report for the year, together with the accounts of the League for the current year, are presented to the Presidents of all the affiliated Associations for their approval and acceptance.

This Report records the actual work which the Committee has been engaged upon and has been kept as short as possible, without, I hope, omitting any facts, and in the hope that it will be read by all the Presidents.

A large attendance at the Munich Congress, the first to be held in Germany, will be a very pleasant way of bringing our good wishes to the German Association.

The writing of this report gives me the opportunity of mentioning and thanking the members of the Committee, who have supported and encouraged me through my second year as your President.

The full Committee have met twice, in London (February 8th) and Hamburg (June 6th) and minutes of each meeting have been sent to all Presidents.

Our Vice-President. Mr. Fl. Tulkens, has. as in the past, supported your President in every way possible, has remained most efficient, and has the gift of dealing with League matters quickly and accurately. During the year he has also acted as our Treasurer and financial adviser. We must all thank him very much for undertaking two positions on the Committee, in a cheerful and conscientious way - as I mentioned last year, no President ever had a better Vice-President.

Mr. Gronholt Pedersen has attended both meetings and has advised and assisted the Committee on all items affecting the Scandinavian countries.

Dr. E. Hauswedell attended both meetings, and to him we give our thanks for his arranging under most pleasant circumstances our meeting in Hamburg. We are indebted to him for his creative ideas and clear thinking when problems arise.

Mr. Percy Muir (President of Honour) attended the London meeting, and although unable to be at Hamburg discussed the Agenda fully with your President, to whom he has acted as adviser throughout the year, always giving freely of his knowledge of past events concerning the League.

Mr. A. Poursin (President of Honour) has attended both meetings of the Committee and, as always, takes a most prominent part in all discussions. His interest and complete faith in the League is most stimulating to us all, while his opinions on some difficult problems are a great asset to your committee.

Mr. Richard S. Wormser, owing to distance and pressure of business, has been unable to attend our meetings, but has kept close touch by correspondence with the Committee - all of whom look forward to meeting him again at Munich.

Mr. M. Hertzberger (Father of the League) was not able to attend our meetings.

Together we have worked in friendship and harmony, and for the support and loyalty of all members of the Committee, your President is most grateful and offers his sincere thanks.


M U N I C H   C O N G R E S S




1. Appointment of Tellers.

2. The Treasurer's and Auditor's report.

3. Subscriptions for 1958.

4. Confidential Lists.

5. New Directory: Report by the editors, Mr. Christian M. Nebehay and Dr. A. Frauendorfer.

6. Dictionary-report on sales.

7. Duplicates of Books in Public Libraries.

8. Plaque.

9. Proposals from Associations.

            1. Austria.

            2. Belgium.

            3. Great Britain.

            4. France.

9a. Alteration of Rule No. 7.

10. Retirement of two members from the Committee at the end of their term of office.

11. Election to fill vacancy on the Committee.

12. Election of Treasurer.

13. Date and place of next Congress.

14. Other Business.


The President at the opening of this, our eleventh Congress, expressed his thanks to Dr. G. Karl, President of the German Association for acting as our host, and also for the arrangements they had made for holding the business meetings in the Prince Karl Palace.

The President asked all delegates to give careful study to the Committee's report for the year and also to the Agenda, which he hoped to complete by Friday - especially referring to the League's finance, the possibility of raising a capital sum; and also the sale of our publications.

Each country affiliated to the League had sent delegates to this Congress, which, including friends, numbered well over 200 people. Special thanks must be given to the State of Bavaria and the City of Munich for their grand entertainment and social meetings, while the farewell banquet given by the German Association was a memorable evening of friendship and understanding enjoyed by all, and an evening to be remembered.

To our hosts, the Vereinigung Deutscher Buchantiquare und Graphikhandler, we offer our grateful thanks and wish them prosperity and success in the coming years.

Amor Librorum nos unit.



Item I.            Nomination of Tellers.

Two Tellers, Mr. Clifford Maggs and Mr. Alain Mazo, were appointed.


Item 2.            Treasurer's Report and Statement of Accounts.

The President called upon the Vice-President (acting Treasurer). Mr. FI. Tulkens presented the financial report and statement of accounts, which having been fully discussed were unanimously adopted.


Item 3.            Subscriptions for 1958.

The question of raising the subscriptions was discussed. The U.S.A. had already voluntarily raised their subscription the previous year to Belgian frs. 25.000.- but so far no country had followed their example. In the afternoon meeting as well as in the General Assembly the American President stressed the point that, if no increase in the subscriptions were made by any other country, the U.S.A. would revert to their old subscription. In the General Assembly all the Presidents of the different associations were asked to express their opinion on the matter of raising the subscriptions. Almost all the Presidents replied that they did not have the authority to promise an increase unless they had first consulted their own associations. The French President remarked that France will pay 20 per cent more than the actual subscription owing to the recent devaluation of the franc by the French government. The Swiss President pointed out that the Swiss subscription was already the highest of the small countries. The countries with a small number of members expressed a wish to raise the subscriptions but also believed it to be very difficult. The Dutch President, just to set an example, promised a symbolical raise to Belgian frs. 8.000. (as against 6.960 Belgian frs.).

The American President also remarked that the A.B.A.A. would not send their subscriptions for the coming year before they knew whether or not any other country would increase its subscription.

(It is very frustrating to the President and the Committee when delegates state that they have not the authority to answer this question - all associations received the annual report and agenda six weeks before the Congress, and all knew that subscriptions for 1958 would be discussed-why was authority not given to delegates !)


Item 4.            Confidential Lists.

The President reminded members that lists were due to be exchanged between associations in May and November - during the year only one list had been received. The question was asked if there was any way for the A.B.A.A to help the European bookseller to safeguard them against bad payers. Both Mr.Wormser and Mr. Steel again stressed the point that the U.S.A. is the only country in which the law makes it impossible to draw up a Confidential List. However. if a member of the League writes directly to the A.B.A.A. asking information about a certain person, the A.B.A.A. will be glad to give as much help as possible. It is advisable to ask information before the transaction is to take place instead of afterwards: this avoids many difficulties.


Item 5.            New Directory.- Report by the Editors, Mr. Christian M. Nebehay and Dr. A. Frauendorfer.

The President praised the hard and intensive work of these two gentlemen during the past twelve months. Mr. Nebehay then read the report. He remarked that the questionnaires which were sent out had not been copied exactly by all the associations. For instance the A.B.A.A. had left out the address of the booksellers' banker.

As forty-five English members and ten German members had not sent back their questionnaires the question was discussed whether only the names and addresses of these persons should be put into the Directory. or whether it should be made as complete as possible. Mr. Nebehay remarked that setting another deadline would be of no use since several deadlines had already been set, without result. Mr.Wormser suggested, to put into the Directory the last information received about these members, no matter how long ago, whether or not correct. Mr. Deruelle, President of the French Association read the exchange of letters which had taken place between him and the President of the League, Mr. Sawyer, about the number of "specialities"- after a long discussion it was agreed that the French Association be allowed to restrict their members to only five "specialities".

It was agreed that this edition of the Directory would comprise:- 1250 copies ordinary paper. 250 copies thin paper.

As final costs were not known it was not possible to fix the selling price, which, however, would be about the same as the first Directory.

Discounts to Associations would remain the same as before. The President promised to notify all Associations of the publication date as soon as it was known - in the meantime all members are asked to advertise the Directory and secure as many orders as possible for it.


Item 6.            Dictionary - Report on Sales.

Mr. Tulkens read the report on sales and urged the advertising of the Dictionary. This would enlarge the income of the League and induce the other countries to join it.

Out of an edition of 1950 copies printed only 711 remain. Will all Presidents please encourage members of their associations to advertise the Dictionary in their catalogues, trade journals and special advertisements. The President thanked Mr. Tulkens for the way in which he had handled the sale of the Dictionary.


Item 7.            Duplicates of Books in Public Libraries.

The President referred to this subject as mentioned in the Annual Report and then called upon all Presidents to speak:-

Austria. Mr. Nebehay had been too busy with the Directory so that this question had been neglected. "I will have a reply at the end of the year", he stated.

Belgium. They have approached the Librarian of the Belgian Royal Library, but received a negative reply. It might be possible to exchange duplicates, but it would necessitate a lot of legal procedures. The number of duplicates would be very small anyway, therefore the Belgian Librarian is not in favour.

Brazil. The books in the Brazilian Libraries are for the greater part only of local interest. If they, however, receive any information concerning interesting duplicates, they will inform the League immediately.

Denmark. The Chief Librarian of the Royal Library in Denmark told the Danish President that there is a special bureau which is occupied with the exchange of duplicates with other libraries in the whole world.

France. The association already has a sub-committee, which met recently. It was proposed that accredited representatives of the I.F.L.A. would be admitted to the conferences of the League. By reciprocity the representatives of the League would be admitted at the conferences of the I.F.L.A. (see point 9 of the agenda).

Attempts for personal contact were also made. As this was already late in the year and the holiday season had started, it was not possible to obtain any reply.

Germany. Dr. Hauswedell stated he had spoken with the Librarian of the Hamburg State Library, who is also a member of the League of German Librarians. The German problem is a different one, because the German Libraries still lack many books as a result of the war and its consequences. Delegates of the German Libraries will discuss this theme at the international meeting of the I.F.L.A.

England. Mr. Thorp read two letters he had received from the British Museum and the Bodleian Library in Oxford. In each case the librarians were not in agreement with this suggestion.

Italy. The law forbids any sale of duplicates from a public state library. It has been possible at times to obtain duplicates from libraries which do not belong to the state, but this is only very small.

Holland. Mr. Hertzberger only wanted to speak in general about all the Libraries. He had a proposal which will come up under No. 9, the proposition of France.

Norway. Also has a law which forbids state libraries to sell duplicates. Some museums dispose of some books, but only in favour of other libraries. Besides, there are very few rare books in Norway.

Sweden. Has the same law as Norway. Exchanges have been made, but are mostly done by a special exchange office.

Switzerland. Dr. Frauendorfer has attended an assembly of Swiss Librarians. Many important Librarians expressed their opinion there. He was given the promise that the matter would be taken into further consideration, but so far he had not received any further information about it. Some sales have been effected, mostly of modern books. which for the greater part have been done by members of the League. "The fact is that most of our libraries are making exchanges with other libraries and also with other countries".

Dr. Frauendorfer remarked that Germany in particular had drawn profit from this. Another Swiss member wanted to make a statement: "There is already an international organisation in the UNESCO which has a system by which libraries have already started an exchange. Would it be recommendable to change a system which has already been set up by UNESCO?"

U.S.A. Most of the American Libraries already have a system of exchanging duplicates, as far as this is permitted by the law. A certain group of librarians, which had accumulated a large number of duplicates decided to pool these duplicates, and started an organisation after the war, the USBE. At first booksellers were allowed to look at the duplicates. Very shortly the Librarians decided there was no need for booksellers, and disposed of the books themselves. Consequently, it might be very dangerous to organise an exchange of duplicates.

Mr. Poursin spoke about the proposition of France to set up a central organisation for the sale of duplicates. By setting up such an organisation he wants to try to avoid the very danger of which Mr. Steel spoke.

There must be some way to find the "chink in the armour". It might be possible to set up an organisation which would approach the librarians concerned, give them full guarantees as far as prices of sales etc. is concerned, which could give them the best results. One must show them through practical results that the best way to dispose of these duplicates should be through this organisation. Mr. De Nobele agreed with Mr. Poursin and said this problem certainly would come up again at future conferences.


Item 8.            Plaque.

The President directed the delegates to examine the sample plaques displayed and mentioned how the matter of the plaques had come on the agenda.

Item 15 of the Report of the London Congress in September 1956: "Mr. Deny. Belgium, proposed that all members of the League should display in their premises a plaque with the badge of the League, which would be a sign that they were reliable traders. The badge could be supplied by the League at a small profit and would thus create more friends and capital for the League".

The example of the plaque has been approved by the committee. The price is 21s. or about Belgian frs. 150 with the stand. The President asked the Presidents of associations to order in bulk for their members direct from London. Orders have to be accompanied by name, address and cheque, so that the plaque can be sent to each member individually.

Mr. Leclercq asked if it would be possible to have several copies of the plaque if a firm had more than one branch. The President agreed. The President pointed out that the "form of agreement" attached on the agenda was only an example and could be altered by any President according to his wishes. Mr. Hertzberger remarked that each association should check the returning of the plaque if a member leaves the League.

Note. The President cannot deal with separate orders, only "bulk" orders from associations, but the plaques will be despatched separately to the addresses given on the associations' list.


Item 9.            Proposals from Associations.


(A) Nominal Contributions to be paid by visiting members to the Annual Congress.

(B) Compiling of Confidential Lists, and prompt reports of any cancellations or alterations to the Lists issued.

(A) Mr. Nebehay read his first proposal. In Geneva this sum was fixed at £3.10s. Od. Great Britain had agreed not to charge for the 1956 Congress since it celebrated its 50th Anniversary. Germany had not charged anything because this was the first Congress in Germany. Therefore, twice the Committee had avoided the Rules, but promised it would not happen again. Mr. Poursin seconded Mr. Nebehay's proposal, since otherwise it would be impossible for any small country to invite a Congress because of the high costs going with it. It was decided that a minimum of $10 per head should be charged by every country inviting a Congress. If the cost of living should increase, this amount could also be increased.

(B) Confidential Lists. The German Publishers' Association publishes a confidential list every year. Mr. Nebehay asked Dr. Hauswedell if it would be possible for the League to affiliate with the organisation which publishes this list. Dr. Hauswedell seconded Mr. Nebehay's proposal and promised to try and discuss the matter of affiliating with the German organisation which is located in Hamburg. This organisation is also occupied with private persons and on behalf of librarians, not only of booksellers. Mr. Hertzberger suggested that a special committee meeting should be held, to which the Presidents of all the National Associations would be invited or their delegates. They can settle there what can be done about the Confidential Lists. "If we start to talk now we shall have so many different views that we shall not get through with the other points on the agenda".

Mr. Sawyer said this meeting could be combined with the next Committee meeting which would be held in January of next year in London, however, it was then decided that the matter would be postponed and discussed by the Committee at their next meeting. In the meantime each President was asked to give as much information as possible concerning the compiling of his own Confidential List. If in the new year the President thinks he can arrive at a solution he will call a meeting of Presidents in London.

Mr. Muir urged all members to send an answer as soon as possible to the questions the President would send them.


"That foreign booksellers called to value books conform themselves to the condition of valuation stated by the National Association of the country where they are called to make this valuation".

Mr. Tulkens said: "It is unfair towards the Belgian booksellers if a foreign bookseller operates under other and more favourable conditions". Mr. Poursin pointed out that this point had already been covered under No. 13 of the Compendium (Usages and Customs). Mr. Tulkens replied that in Belgium there had been several cases where this agreement has not been followed. Therefore Belgium had once more brought up this matter to draw the attention of the Congress to it.

Great Britain.

"That resolutions put up by countries affiliated to the League for discussion at the Annual Conference shall always be discussed first by the general assembly through their delegates at the Congress. If, however, no satisfactory result is reached, it shall be referred to the League Committee, who can call a meeting of Presidents if necessary at the Congress to resolve the question and refer it back to the assembly.

The decision of referring the matter to the League Committee will rest with the President of the International League".

Mr. Thorp said: “This proposal was brought up because the British members are unsatisfied with the dull tone of the debates in the General Assemblies.” All the members were in favour of the proposal. Mr. Poursin: "This question has, for a long time, held the attention of the Committee. because of the pertinent remarks of the Associations. Indeed, if it is out of question that all the members should be given the right to speak on all the questions, for this is a material impossibility, it is still more impossible that the attending members do not take part in the discussions and that they have to vote only on solutions already carried out. The Congress would then lose all its interest for the participating members.

At previous meetings, the Committee have already decided that, only the questions which are too complicated would be first examined at the Presidents' meeting. For, of course, at a Congress, the decision always belongs to the General Assembly and never to the Presidents' meeting who only may have the charge to clear up the questions. This is stated by the rules". Mr. Muir brought up another point: "It had always been emphasised to a country inviting a Congress that the principal matter was work and not pleasure. Of course the pleasures were highly appreciated but still it is a fact that never enough time is left for work. The inviting country should be told what time is needed for business and then it can divide the time left for pleasure". Mr. Steel emphasised the American point of view: "The delegates come a long way and want to work. Also it would be more interesting for the delegates if they knew they would get a chance to speak in the General Assembly". Mr. Hertzberger agreed. He also would like to see the proposals of the associations put first on the agenda. This proposition was voted upon, and accepted unanimously.


(A)            "Problem of the sale of duplicates in Public Libraries. Invitation of representatives from Public Libraries to the Conferences of the I.L.A.B. Our own delegates might be reciprocally invited to the Conferences of Librarians".

(B)            "Creation of a 'Reference Library' related to commercial practice in the sale of books covering World desiderata, with a view to the advancement of our trade, notably in the investigation of new specialities.. A common effort is desirable on an international plan".

(A) This proposition was already brought up in the previous General Assembly under No. 7. After a long discussion it was decided to examine this question thoroughly at our next meetings.

(B) Mr. Deruelle read his second proposal: "Creation of a library related to commercial practice in the sale of books, etc . . . . "

Mr. Poursin: "The French proposal needs some explanation. The question is to facilitate the publication of a serial of studies destined to describe and improve the march of our trade and to show us the things done and the things to do; this would constitute a capital of valuable knowledge concerning the antiquarian book trade".

Mr. Steel proposed to postpone the proposal to the next Congress, where there should be a more clear and precise text. This was accepted by twelve votes to two.


Extra Item 9a.                        Alteration of Rule No. 7.

Mr. Sawyer on behalf of the Committee proposed to add No. 9a to the Agenda. Changing of the Rules. The rule concerning membership No. 7. "Each association is independent in its own internal affairs, except that no National Association may accept any foreign members other than those who are members of the National Associations of their country in which they operate if such association exists and is a member of the League", The President proposed to insert the words "or retain" after the words "to accept".

Mr. De Nobele pointed out that no rule can be altered or changed without thirty days prior notice. The President agreed and withdrew the alteration.


Item 10.            Retirement of two members from the Committee at the end of their term of office.

Dr. Aeschlimann retired because of ill health. The President expressed his thanks for all the services he had rendered to the League during the past years. Dr. Hauswedell offered himself for re-election and was re-elected by acclamation.


Item 11.            Election to fill vacancy on the Committee.

According to the wish of the President, the French Association had put up a candidate for the vacancy: Mr. Fernand De Nobele. Mr. De Nobele was elected by acclamation.


Item 12. Election of Treasurer.

To replace Dr. Aeschlimann, the President proposed Mr. Gronholt Pedersen as a candidate for the position of Treasurer. Mr. Pedersen said that he had difficulty in speaking French and English, but that if the Congress thought he was capable, he would be glad to accept.

He feared that the larger part of the work would remain with Mr. Tulkens. In the Committee meeting it had already been stated that the funds would remain in Brussels. Mr. Pedersen was elected by acclamation.


Item 13.            Date and Place of next Congress.

For the first time in the history of the League no country offered to act as host for the coming year - many suggestions were made including chartering a special ship to sail around the Scandinavian waters, or taking over a hotel in some special beauty spot or spa. The President, on behalf of the Committee, stated that if no invitation was received by early 1958 for next year's Congress, he would, in order to conform with the rules, call a meeting of Presidents at a time and place best suited for the Committee.


Item 14. Other Business.

Mr. Nebehay proposed that Proposals received from Associations should be worded clearly and precisely.

Mr. Leclercq on behalf of the delegates thanked the President for the excellent way he had conducted the 11th Congress of the I.L.A.B./L.I.L.A. He also expressed his thanks to our interpreter, Mr. Franco. The President expressed his thanks to Mr. Leclercq and the assembly. also to his vice-president, members of the Committee, and the German Association for acting as our hosts.

This, the 11th Congress was concluded at 17.00 hrs


Specimen form of agreement for Members applying for the

League's Plaque



We the undersigned member-s of the Association do hereby apply to rent a plaque of the emblem of the International League of Antiquarian Booksellers upon the terms and conditions following. that is to say:-

That I/We be entitled during my/our membership of the Association, or until the Association calls in the same, to display the plaque. but that it shall remain the property of the League and shall be for my/our use only, and that I/we shall not permit the same to be used by any other person, firm or company, and further that the same shall be delivered up or destroyed by me/us on ceasing to be a member/s.

I/we agree to rent the plaque for the sum of …….            during  my/our membership, and a

cheque for this amount is enclosed herewith.

As witness my/our hand this............... day of our…………………

One thousand nine hundred and... . . . . .







Ancien Directeur du Cabinet ou President de la République Autrichienne




Conservateur en chef de la Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique,


Conservateur en chef Musée Plontin-Moretu




Ancien Ministre de I'lnstmction Publique


Ancien Bibliothecaire de l'Etat.




Pre Minister of Foreign Affairs.





President d'Honneur de l' Assembfee Nationale


De l'Academie Francaise.


De I'Acadmiee Francaise.



G E R M A N Y - A L L E M A G N E







I T A L Y - I T A L I E


Ancien President de la Republique Italienne.



Directeur General des Academies et des Bibliothèques d’Italie




Professor à l’Université de Nimegue,


Bibliothecaire de l'Université d'Amsterdam


N O R W A Y - N O R V E G E


Ancien Bibliothecaire en Chef de la Bibliothèque de l’Université.


Avocat à la Haute Cour.




Secretaire General de I'O.N.U.


Directeur de la Bibliotheque Royale.




Directeur de la Bibliotheque Nationale à Berne et Délégué de la Suisse à l’Unesco




Keeper of Printed Books. Pierpont Morgan Library


Director General . UNESCO.


Librarian, John Carter Brown Library


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